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In Progress and Under Review

Rhodes, M. (forthcoming). Are humans born to hate? Three myths and three developmental lessons about the origins of social categorization and inter-group bias. In J. Decety (Ed.). The Social Brain. MIT Press.
[pre-print]

Foster-Hanson, E., Leslie, S.J., & Rhodes, M. (under review). Speaking of kinds: How generic language shapes the development of category representations. [pre-print] [OSF]

Foster-Hanson, E.*, Moty, K.*, Cardarelli, A., Ocampo, J. D., & Rhodes, M. (under review). Developmental changes in strategies for gathering evidence about biological kinds. [pre-print] [OSF]

Lei, R.F., Leshin, R.A., and Rhodes M. (under review). The Development of Intersectional Social Prototypes. [pre-print] [OSF]

Lei, R.F. & Rhodes, M. (under review). Race and gender overlap to shape perception of children’s faces. [OSF] [pre-print]

Mandalaywala, T.M., Tai, C., & Rhodes, M. (under review). Children's use of race and gender as cues to social status. [pre-print] [OSF] [Databrary]

Foster-Hanson, E., Roberts, S.O., Gelman, S.A., & Rhodes, M. (under revision). Categories convey normative information across domains. [pre-print] [OSF]

Rhodes, M. and Leslie, S.J. (in progress). Children’s media communicates essentialist views of science and scientists. [pre-print]

Journal Articles

Lei, R., Green, E., Leslie, S.J., & Rhodes, M. (in press). Children lose confidence in their potential to “be scientists,” but not in their capacity to do science. Developmental Science. [pre-print] [OSF]

Yudkin, K., Van Bavel, J., and Rhodes, M. (in press). Young children police in-group members at personal cost. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. [pre-print] [OSF]

Foster-Hanson, E., & Rhodes, M. (2019). Normative Social Role Concepts in Early Childhood. Cognitive Science, 43(8): 1-18. [DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12782] [pre-print] [OSF]

Kachergis, G., Gureckis, T. M., and Rhodes, M. (2019). Exploring informal science interventions to promote children's understanding of natural categories. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [pre-print] [OSF]

Rhodes, M., Leslie, S.J., Yee, K., and Saunders, K. (2019). Subtle linguistic cues increase girls’ engagement in science. Psychological Science, 30(3): 455-466. [pre-print] [DOI: 10.1177/0956797618823670] [OSF]

Foster-Hanson, E. & Rhodes M. (2019). Is the most representative skunk the average or the stinkiest? Development changes in representation of biological categories. Cognitive Psychology, 110, 1-15. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2018.12.004] [OSF]

Chalik, L., & Rhodes, M. (2018). Learning about social-category based obligations. Cognitive Development, 48, 117-124. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2018.06.010] [OSF]

Foster-Hanson, E., Cimpian, A., Leshin, R. & Rhodes, M. (2018). Asking children to “be helpers” can backfire after setbacks. Child Development. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13147] [OSF]

Mandalaywala, T. M., Ranger-Murdock, G., Amodio, D. M., & Rhodes, M. (2018). The nature and consequences of essentialist beliefs about race in early childhood. Child Development, 90(4): e437-e453. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13008] [OSF]

Chalik, L., Leslie, S. J., & Rhodes, M. (2017). Cultural context shapes essentialist beliefs about religion. Developmental Psychology53(6), 1178-1187. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1037/dev0000301]

Kachergis, G., Rhodes, M., & Gureckis, T. (2017). Desirable difficulties during the development of active inquiry skills. Cognition, 166: 407-417. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2017.05.021]

Mandalaywala, T. M., Amodio, D., & Rhodes, M. (2017). Essentialism promotes racial prejudice by increasing endorsement of social hierarchies. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9(4): 461-469. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1177/1948550617707020]

Rhodes, M., Leslie, S. J., Bianchi, L., & Chalik, L. (2017). The role of generic language in the early development of social categorization. Child Development, 89(1): 148-155. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12714]

Rhodes, M., Leslie, S. J., Saunders, K., Dunham, Y., & Cimpian, A. (2017) How does social essentialism affect the development of inter-group relations? Developmental Science. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/desc.12509]

Rhodes, M., & Mandalaywala, T. M. (2017). The development and developmental consequences of social essentialism. WIREs Cognitive Science, 2017, 8:e1437. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1002/wcs.1437]

Roberts, S., Ho, A., Rhodes, M., & Gelman, S.A. (2017). Making boundaries great again? Essentialism and support for boundary enhancing initiatives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 1643-1658.
[pdf] [DOI: 10.1177/0146167217724801]

Rhodes, M., & Wellman, H. (2016). Moral learning as intuitive theory revision. Cognition, 167: 191-200.
[pdf] [DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.08.013]

Chalik, L., & Rhodes, M. (2015). The communication of naïve theories of the social world in parent-child conversation. Journal of Cognition and Development, 16, 719-741. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2014.949722] [OSF]

Rhodes, M. Bonawitz, E., Shafto, P., Chen, A., & Caglar, L. (2015). Controlling the message: Preschoolers' use of information to teach and deceive others. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-6. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00867]

Rhodes, M. Hetherington, C., Brink, K., & Wellman, H. (2015). Infants' use of social partnerships to predict behavior. Developmental Science, 18(6), 909-916. [pdf] [DOI: doi: 10.1111/desc.12267]

Rhodes, M. & Liebenson, P. (2015). Continuity and change in the development of category-based induction: The test case of diversity-based reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 82, 74-95. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2015.07.003]

Wodak, D., Leslie, S. J., & Rhodes, M. (2015). What a loaded generalization: Generics and social cognition. Philosophy Compass, 10, 625-635. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/phc3.12250]

Chalik, L., & Rhodes, M. (2014). Preschoolers use social allegiances to predict behavior. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 136-160. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2012.728546]

Chalik, L., Rivera, C., & Rhodes, M. (2014). Children's use of categories and mental states to predict social behavior. Developmental Psychology, 50, 2360-2367. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1037/a0037729]

DeJesus, J., Rhodes, M., & Kinzler, K. (2014). Evaluations versus expectations: Children's divergent beliefs about resource distribution. Cognitive Science, 38, 178-193. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12093]

Rhodes, M. (2014). Children's explanations as a window into their intuitive theories of the social world. Cognitive Science, 38, 1687-1697. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12129]

Rhodes, M. (2014). Inherence-based views of social categories: Commentary on Cimpian and Salomon, "The Inherence Heuristic: An Intuitive Means of Making Sense of the World, and a Potential Precursor to Psychological Essentialism." Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 502-503. [DOI: 10.1017/S0140525X13003877] [pdf]

Rhodes, M., & Brandone, A. (2014). Three-year-olds' theories of mind in actions and words. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology, 5, 1-8. [pdf] [DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00263]

Rhodes, M., & Chalik, L. (2014). The interplay between intuitive psychology and intuitive sociology. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32, 248-251 [pdf]. [DOI: 10.1111/bjdp.12050]

Rhodes, M., Gelman, S.A., & Karuza, J.C. (2014). Preschool ontology: The role of beliefs about category boundaries in early categorization. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 78-93. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2012.713875]

Diesendruck, G., Goldfein-Elbaz, R., Rhodes, M., Gelman, S.A., & Neumark, N. (2013). Cross-cultural differences in children's beliefs about the objectivity of social categories. Child Development, 84, 1906-17. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12369]

Rhodes, M. (2013). How two intuitive theories shape the development of social categorization. Child Development Perspectives, 7,12-16. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/cdep.12007]

Rhodes, M., & Chalik, L. (2013). Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations. Psychological Science, 6, 999-1006. [pdf] [OSF] [DOI: 10.1177/0956797612466267]

Rhodes, M. & Wellman, H.M. (2013). Constructing a new theory from old ideas and new evidence. Cognitive Science, 37, 592-604.[pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/cogs.12031]

Rhodes, M. (2012). Naïve theories of social groups. Child Development, 83, 1900-1916. [pdf] [OSF]
[DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01835.x]

Rhodes, M., Leslie, S.J., & Tworek, C. (2012). Cultural transmission of social essentialism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 13526-13531. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1208951109]

Rhodes, M. & Brickman, D. (2011). The influence of competition on children’s social categories. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12, 194-221. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1080/15248372.2010.535230]

Rhodes, M., & Brickman, D. (2010). The role of within-category variability in category-based induction: A developmental study. Cognitive Science, 34, 1561-1573. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/j.1551-6709.2010.01137.x]

Rhodes, M., Gelman, S.A., & Brickman, D. (2010). Children’s attention to sample composition in learning, teaching, and discovery. Developmental Science, 12, 421-429. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00896.x]

Rhodes, M. & Gelman, S.A. (2009). A developmental examination of the conceptual structure of animal, artifact, and human social categories across two cultural contexts. Cognitive Psychology, 59, 294-274. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.05.001]

Rhodes, M., & Gelman, S.A. (2009). Five-year-olds’ beliefs about the discreteness of category boundaries for animals and artifacts.Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 920-924. [pdf] [DOI: 10.3758/PBR.16.5.920]

Taylor, M.G., Rhodes, M., & Gelman, S.A. (2009). Boys will be boys, cows will be cows: Children’s essentialist reasoning about human gender and animal development. Child Development, 79, 1270-1287. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01272.x]

Rhodes, M., & Brickman, D. (2008). Preschoolers’ responses to social comparisons involving relative failure. Psychological Science, 19, 969-972. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02184.x]

Rhodes, M., Brickman, D., & Gelman, S.A. (2008). Sample diversity and premise typicality in inductive reasoning: Evidence for developmental change. Cognition, 108, 543-556. [pdf]

Rhodes, M., & Gelman, S.A. (2008). Categories influence predictions about individual consistency. Child Development, 79, 1271-1288. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01188.x]

Rhodes, M., Gelman, S.A., & Brickman, D. (2008). Developmental changes in the consideration of sample diversity in inductive reasoning. Journal of Cognition and Development, 9, 112-143. [pdf]
[DOI: 10.1080/15248370701836626]

Oyserman, D., Brickman, D., & Rhodes, M. (2007). School success, possible selves, and parent school involvement. Family Relations, 56, 479-489. [pdf] [DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2007.00475.x]

Conference Presentations

Foster-Hanson, E., Leslie, S. J., & Rhodes, M. (2019). Form over content: Generic scope communicates essentialist beliefs. Accepted as part of symposium, the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, Baltimore, MD.

Foster-Hanson, E., Moty, K., Cardarelli, A., Ocampo, J. D., & Rhodes, M. (2019). Developmental changes in strategies for learning about biological kinds. Accepted as part of symposium, the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, Baltimore, MD.

Mandalaywala, T. M., Lei, R.F., Benitez, J., Leslie, S-J., & Rhodes, M. (2019). Do children view social status in essentialist terms? Presentation given in the symposium (Selin Gulgöz, Chair), “New Directions inSocial Essentialism Research,” at the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.

Moty, K., & Brandone, A. C. (2019). The role of knowledge and explanation in attenuating children’s expectations of category homogeneity. Talk presented at the 2019 Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, Maryland.

Moty, K., & Rhodes, M. (Accepted). What generics communicate about unmentioned categories. Talk submitted to the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Society for Philosophy and Psychology, San Diego, California.

Rhodes, M. Lei, R.F., Green, E., & Leslie, S-J. (2019). Children lose confidence in their potential to “be scientists” but not in their capacity to “do science”. Presentation given in the symposium (AllisonMaster, Chair), “Do People Like Me Belong in STEM? Social Cognitive Influences on Children’sSTEM Motivation” at the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore, MD.

Foster-Hanson, E., & Rhodes, M. (2018). Idealized forms in early biological concepts. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Philosophy and Psychology, Ann Arbor, MI.

Foster-Hanson, E., Rhodes, M., & Leslie, S.J. (2018). Speaking of kinds: How generics convey information about category structure. Talk presented as part of symposium at the Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Madison, WI.

Foster-Hanson, E., & Rhodes, M. (2017). Normative beliefs shape representations of animal categories in early childhood. Poster presented at the Cognitive Development Society Biennial Meeting, Portland, OR.

Foster-Hanson, E. & Rhodes, M. (2017). Developmental Change in the Use of Ideals to Reason About Animal Categories. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Austin TX. 

Mandalaywala, T. M., & Rhodes, M. (2017). Essentialist beliefs about race in early childhood. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Austin TX. [pdf]

Yee, K., Leslie, S.J., & Rhodes, M. (2017). The linguistic transmission of maladaptive beliefs about science. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Austin TX. [pdf]

Foster-Hanson, E., Leslie, S.J., & Rhodes, M. (2016). How does generic language elicit essentialist beliefs? Talk presented at the Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Philadelphia, PA. 

Foster-Hanson, E., Leslie, S.J., & Rhodes, M. (2016). Preschoolers' dual character concepts. Talk presented at the International Conference on Thinking, Providence, RI.

Foster-Hanson, E., Cimpian, A., & Rhodes, M. (2015). Helping versus being a helper: Linguistic cues and social behavior when encountering setbacks. Poster presented at the Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting, Philadelphia, PA. 

Chapters and Proceedings

Kachergis, G., Gureckis, T., & Rhodes, M. (2019). Exploring informal science interventions to promote children’s understanding of natural categories. Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [pdf] [OSF]

*Chalik., L., Van Bavel, J., & Rhodes, M. (2018). The cognitive processes underlying moral judgment across development. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [pre-print] [pdf]

Mandalaywala, T.M., & Rhodes, M. (2016). Racial essentialism is associated with prejudice towards Blacks in 5- and 6-year old White children. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [pdf]

Kachergis, G., Rhodes, M., & Gureckis, T. (2016). Desirable difficulties in the development of active inquiry skills. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [pdf]

Foster-Hanson, E., Leslie, S.J., & Rhodes, M. (2016). How does generic language elicit essentialist beliefs? Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [pdf]

Rhodes, M., & Bushara, L. (2015). Learning about science and self: A partnership between the Children’s Museum of Manhattan and the Psychology Department at New York University. Chapter to appear in D. Sobel & J. Jipson (Eds.), Fostering cognitive development in children’s museums. New York: Psychology Press. [pdf]

Rhodes, M., Bonawitz, L., Shafto, P., & Chen, A. (2014). Controlling the message: Preschoolers' use of evidence to teach and deceive other. In P. Bello, M. Guarini, M. McShane, & B. Scassellati (Eds.), Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. [pdf]

Gelman, S.A., & Rhodes, M. (2013). Concepts, development of. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind (pp. 168-171). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Rhodes, M. (2013). The social allegiance hypothesis. In M. Banaji & S.A. Gelman (Eds.), The Development of Social Cognition (pp. 258-262). New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Gelman, S.A., & Rhodes, M. (2012). “Two-thousand years of stasis”: How psychological essentialism impedes evolutionary understanding. In K.R. Rosengren, S. Brem, E.M. Evans, & G. Sinartra (Eds). Evolution challenges: Integrating research and practice in teaching and learning about evolution (pp. 3-21). New York: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Rhodes, M. (2012). When children ignore evidence in category-based induction: Irrational inferences? In F. Xu & T. Kushnir (Eds.),Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Vol. 43, pp. 219-235). [pdf